Natural monuments on the territory of Azerbaijani Republic are specific and well-preserved small areas of most typical landscapes, scenic corners of special aesthetic value, definite areas with endemic, relic and disappearing fauna, aged trees, examples of horticultural art, waterfalls, caves, lakes with unique genesis and morphology, original geological rock formations, the sites with paleontological finding, other sites having great historical, cultural-educational significance and other picturesque places.
There are 2083 trees with age over 100 years, 37 geological and paleontological sites and over 15 thousand hectares of standard original, endemic and rare types and valuable forest areas. All these sites are under protection and the State Committee of Ecology issued passports for each natural monument, and local powers are providing their protection.
Special care is given to forest areas and natural environments.
There are 30 such protected sites including:
Pistachio grove in Barda district – unique botanic object of mesophilic forest formation with trees 370-450 years old
Boxwood grove in Astara district is a representative of oldest Girkanian flora, relict grove of tertiary period. Very precious are 200-300 years old evergreen boxwood, Girkanian yew, other trees
Eldar pine grove on the border with Georgia (Ellaroglu Ridge, branch of Geigol Reserve)
Plane tree grove in Basutchai Reserve – the largest plane-tree formation in Basutchai River meadow
Araz oak in Zangilan district is disappearing type and can be found only in forests at the shores of Araz River
There are 37 geological (paleontogical) natural monuments under state protection including:
9 caves, including Azykh cave with Neolithic settlement of prehistoric man and rock paintings
Unique geological formations like Mount of Baku story with classical cuts of lower anthropogenic deposits 70 meters thick – 400-600m. deep and consisting of marble originated by limestone metamorphoses
4 mud volcanoes: Lokbatan with maximal number of registered irruption (20), is situated at the altitude of 130m above the sea and differs from other volcanoes by absence of griphon stage. It is one of most interesting bastion-shaped volcanoes of Gobustan is situated at the southwest projection of Alyat Ridge border of Kur lowlands, as well as peculiar mud Kyanizadaq and Dashqil volcanoes of Gobustan Afurjin waterfall at Velvelichai River where water falls vertically from the height of 60 meters
Paleonthologic objects like Binagadin asphalt lake is a site of quartentiary flora and fauna thanks to their diversity and good preservation belongs to richest deposits of the world. There are 243 types of fossil flora and fauna – huge collection of remains of sea animals, whales, sea turtles, fish, insects and plants belonging to Maikop deposits and presented by clay soil, shale, etc.